The following is a collection of papers related to the Hopkins v. Price Waterhouse and the Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins court cases, a seven-year battle against Hopkins’ employer for gender discrimination. Her final victory in 1990 helped to expand workplace discrimination laws to include gender stereotyping. The collection date ranges from 1967-2000 and includes numerous newspaper and periodical articles that document the journey from beginning to end, court transcripts, personal and professional correspondence, materials related to her book So Ordered: Making Partner the Hard Way, a scrapbook album, and other papers. In addition, Hopkins’ personal correspondence (1965-1989) with a former Hollins professor is located in a separate collection: Julia Randall Papers.

Ann Branigar Hopkins was born in December 18, 1943 in Galveston, Texas to Tela Maurine Chiles and William Hopkins. Her father was a career Army officer while her mother worked as a nurse. She attended Hollins College (now University), 1961-1965, receiving her B. A. in Mathematics and an award for Outstanding Achievement in Mathematics. She earned her M.S. in Mathematics at Indiana University (Bloomington) in 1967. In 1974 she married Thomas Peter Gallagher, Jr. and had three children: Tela Margaret Gallagher, Thomas Gilbert Gallagher, and Thomas Peter Gallagher.

Her first job was as a mathematics instructor at Hollins for the 1967-1968 academic year, filling in for a professor on sabbatical. From Hollins, she moved on to IBM and several other corporations before obtaining a position at Price Waterhouse. While at Price Waterhouse, Ms. Hopkins became a candidate for partnership in 1982. In 1983 she learned that she had not been selected, despite past favorable evaluations. Upon discovering she was passed over for several men who had not brought in as much business as she had, Hopkins decided to sue Price Waterhouse for sex discrimination. Consequently she experienced retaliation and harassment by firm officials, who eventually terminated her employment on January 17, 1984.

Her journey took her through the Washington D.C. Federal District Court, the Washington, D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, and the U.S. Supreme Court. There were five separate court cases from 1985-1990. In the meantime, she found employment at the Department of State, as a consultant (1984-1988), and the World Bank in 1988. By May 1990, the courts determined that Hopkins had been discriminated against and should be reinstated at Price Waterhouse as a partner. Price Waterhouse was also instructed to give Hopkins $379,000 in back pay. On February 18, 1991, she was finally able to return to Price Waterhouse.

Hopkins’ story was published as part of a larger book in A Few Good Women by Jane White (published by Prentice Hall in 1992) and she also received invitations for speaking engagements and interviews. Although Hopkins didn’t consider herself a “leading edge person” or a role model, she became one to many women across the country.

At the suggestion of others, Hopkins decided to write her own book. She began work on a manuscript, documenting her journey through the court system. The end result was So Ordered: Making Partner the Hard Way, published by the University of Massachusetts Press, in 1996.

After returning to her job at Price Waterhouse in early 1991, she worked more than a decade for Price Waterhouse (now Price Waterhouse Cooper) before retiring in 2002. Hopkins lived in Washington, D.C. for most of her life until her death on June 23, 2018.

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Court Documents

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Civil Action No. 80-3040 Plaintiff's Trial Brief, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-14)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Amended Notice of Depositions and Request for Documents, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1990-01-12)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Appendix to Defendant's Brief on Remand, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1989-11-03)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Court Transcript (1-178), United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-25)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Court Transcript (1-374), United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1990-02-28)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Court Transcript (179-300), United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-26)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Court Transcript (301-448A), United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-27)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Court Transcript (449-663), United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-28)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Court Transcript (664-730), United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-29)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Defendant's Brief on Remand, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1989-11-03)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Defendant's Identification of Expert Witnesses, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1989-12-11)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Defendant's Interrogatories Relief Phase - Set I, United States District Court for the District of Columbia

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Defendant's Memorandum on Issues for Remedial Phase Trial, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1988-02-01)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Defendant's Pre-Trial Reply Brief on Remedial Issues, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1990-01-24)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Defendant's Proposed Findings of Fact, United States District Court for the District of Columbia

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Defendant's Reply to Plaintiff's Post-Trial Brief, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-05-24)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Defendant's Response to Plaintiff's Proposed Findings of Fact, United States District Court for the District of Columbia

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Notice of Deposition - Request for Documents, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1989-10-30)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Notice of Depositions and Request for Documents, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1990-01-03)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Order, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (1989-10-13)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Brief on Remand, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1989-11-03)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Discovery Requests Relief Phase - Set I (Revised), United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1989-10-05)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Exhibit List, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-14)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's First Request for Production of Documents, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-14 (approximated))

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's First Set of Interrogatories, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-14 (approximated))

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Further Answers to Defendant's Interrogatories Relief Phase - Set I, United States District Court for the District of Columbia

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Post-Trial Brief, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-05-10)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's PreTrial Package, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-14)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Proposed Findings of Fact, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1989-11-03)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Proposed Findings of Fact, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-14)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Reply Brief, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-05-24)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Reply Concerning Brief, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1988-02-02)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Reply on Remand, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1990-01-24)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Request for Production of Documents Relief Phase - Set I, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1987-11-06)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Response to Defendant's Request for Documents, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1989-11-14)

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Civil Action No. 84-3040 Plaintiff's Witness List, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-14)

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Civil Action No. 85-6052 Order, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (1989-08-01)

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Civil Action Nos. 85-6052 and 6097 (consolidated) Original Brief for Appellant-Cross Appellee, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (1986-02-10)

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Civil Action Nos. 85-6052 and 6097 (consolidated) Reply Brief for Appellant-Cross Appellee, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (1986-04-21)

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Civil Action Nos. 85-6052 and 6097 (consolidated) Reply Fried for Cross Appellant, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (1986-05-05)

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Deposition of Benten B. Warder, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-02-12)

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Deposition of Donald Eplebaum, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-08)

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Deposition of Donald R. Ziegler, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-01)

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Deposition of Joseph E. Connor, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1990-01-12)

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Deposition of Lewis J. Krulwich, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-08)

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Deposition of Neil Redford, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1990-01-12)

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Deposition of Thomas E. Beyer, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-02-06)

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Errata Sheet, Deposition of Ann B. Hopkins, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-11)

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Examination Before Trial: Joseph E. Connor, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-12)

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Examination Before Trial: Paul Goodstat, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1985-03-12)

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Supreme Court Gets Wall St. Sex Bias Case, Mary Papenfuss (1987-03-01 (approximated))

Miscellaneous

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Notes (Deposition of Donald Eplebaum) (1985-03-08 (approximated))

Press

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Accountant Guilty of Sex Bias, New York Times (1985-09-21)

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A Hard Nose and a Short Skirt, Richard Lacayo (1988-11-14)

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A Slap at Sex Stereotypes, Andrea Sachs (1989-05-15)

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Bias Lives, Sophie M. Korczyk (1985-04-16)

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Court 6-3 Eases Tasks of Plaintiffs in Job-Bias Suits, Linda Greenhouse (1989-05-02)

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Court Backs Women on Sex Bias, Al Kamen (1989-05-02)

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Determined to be Heard: Four Americans and their journeys to the Supreme Court, Melody Deshaney (1988-10-02)

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High Court Ruling on Sexual Bias on the Job Gives Edge to Worker, Associated Press (1989-05-02)

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High Court Shifts Burden to Firms in Sex Bias-Cases, Stephen Wermiel (1989-05-02)

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Is Price Waterhouse A Help to Victims of Sex Discrimination, N. Thompson Powers (1989-05-15)

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Judge Faults Firm’s Sexual Stereotyping in Not Promoting Woman, Sandra Evans (1985-09-21)

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Myth America in the Workplace, U. S. News & World Report (1989-05-15)

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No Lipstick, No Partnership?, Washington Post (1989-05-03)

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Obvious Case of Sex Discrimination, Martha Charmallas (1988-12-13)

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Religious Frenzy vs. Sexist Whimsy, Robin Abcarian (1989-05-07)

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Sex in the Executive Suite, Gene Owens (1989-05-07)

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‘Social Grace’ Case Raises Question of Subtle Sex Bias in Workplace, Al Karsen (1988-10-02)

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The Big Eight Still a Male Bastion, Eric N. Berg (1988-06-12)

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The People Page Highlights Multi-faced, Multi-talented Hollins Alumnae, Don’t Tread on Me, Hollins Alum Magazine (1989-01-01 (approximated))

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U.S. Court Puts Burden on Firms Over Sex Bias, Associated Press (1989-05-02)

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Woman sues Price Waterhouse for sex bias, David Sellers (1984-03-21)

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Wrestling With Bias, Daniel Seligman (1989-06-05)