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Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States of America (USA). In North America, Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and vectored by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Historically, Lyme disease has been primarily restricted to the northeastern United States, despite I. scapularis occurring throughout the entire eastern region. There are genetically unique northern and southern populations of I. scapularis. The differences between these two populations have been hypothesized to be driving the difference in Lyme disease case incidence in the northeastern and southeastern United States. This review will examine the ecology of Lyme disease and its associated vector in the United States, including its more recent expansion into Canada and the southeastern USA.

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